CALORIE RESTRICTION MIMICKING GLOSSERY


APOPTOSIS - Organized programmed cell death. If dead organelles/cells are not properly digested they cause trouble in a variety of tissues. This includes disrupting metabolic function and toxic secretions that poison and jeopardize cells around them. Their toxins can move into the circulatory system and cause issues in the entire organism. These are called Senescent cells and too many in the system can cause tumors, cancer and potentially shut down an organism.

ATP - adenosine triphosphate, is the fuel at the center of every human cell. ATP assures there is energy for enzymes to do their job and it keeps molecules water soluble. When ATP levels decline molecules can clump together and create plaque. The loss of molecular solubility leads to neurological disorders and cognitive decline. NAD+ plays the main role in creating ATP.

AMPK - activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a Master switch and cellular nutrient sensor. Activated by a deficit in nutrients it stimulates glucose uptake and lipid oxidation to produce energy while off switching energy consuming processes. Including glucose and lipid production to restore energy balance. When glucose production is halted Klotho, FOXO and AMP/ATP are stimulated which all plays a major role in DNA repair and healthy gene expression. AMPK controls whole body glucose homeostasis by regulating metabolism in multiple peripheral tissues. AMPK serves as an inter signal integrator for tissues including the hypothalamus which controls whole-body energy balance.

CALORIE RESTRICTION MIMICRY (CRM) - Calorie Restriction is the most current reliable intervention to prevent age-related degeneration, age-associated decline and disease from the aging process. The reduction of calories by 10% - 50% compared to a typical 3 meal a day diet is known to extend the longevity of various species from yeast to rodents and humans. There are clear indicators that the benefits of CRM are related to alteration of the metabolic rate and the reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen. CRM signals insulin like growth factors and target anti-aging pathways to activate proteins and enzymes that maintain orderly cell activity and mitochondrial energy. CRM mimics an environment where cells act as they did when we were younger. There is still much to learn in this field, and the next 10 years should be very exciting.

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS - The circadian clock controls a wide array of physiological and behavioral systems, including energy metabolism, gastrointestinal tract motility, sleep-wake cycles, cardiovascular activity, endocrine secretion, body temperature, renal activity, and locomotor ability. Circadian imbalance is emphasized by timed manifestations of certain pathologies, such as: hypertensive crises, myocardial infarction, and asthma and allergy attacks. Disruption of coordination between the endogenous clock and the environment leads to symptoms of fatigue, disorientation, and compromised immune systems. Disruption of circadian rhythms can seriously impact overall health and increase cancer proneness.

CYTOPLASM - The jelly-like fluid that fills a cell is called cytoplasm. It is made up of mostly water and salt and is compatible with seawater. Cytoplasm is present within the membrane of all cell types. All organelles and cell parts live here - including the mitochondria. Most cellular activities occur in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasm contains molecules such as enzymes which are responsible for breaking down waste to aid in metabolic activity. Proteins, enzyme, lipids, stem-cells, peptides, DNA and RNA can all be found in the Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is responsible for giving a cell its shape. It helps to fill out the cell and keeps organelles in their place, much like air fills an empty balloon. 

FOXO - Studies have consistently revealed FOXO (Forkhead box O) transcription factors as important determinants in aging and longevity. FOXO proteins represent a subfamily of transcription factors conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals that act as key regulators of longevity downstream of insulin and insulin‐like growth factor signaling. This subfamily is involved in a wide range of crucial cellular processes regulating stress resistance, metabolism, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Their role in longevity determination is complex and remains to be fully understood through ongoing research.

IGF/1 - The insulin-like growth factors are proteins with sequence similarity to insulin. IGFs are part of a complex system that cells use to communicate with their physiologic environment. Proper regulation prevents insulin sensitivity. As we age peptide hormones fail in modulating responsiveness to insulin. This presents a major challenge of the adaptability of the growth hormone IGF-1/insulin system. Changes in glucose and insulin secretion result in counter-regulatory responses, and modifications in growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 function alter insulin’s ability to maintain normal carbohydrate homeostasis. This results in blood sugar spikes and eventually diabetes.

GENOTOXICITY - Genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer. While genotoxicity is often confused with mutagenicity, all mutagens are genotoxic, whereas not all genotoxic substances are mutagenic.

KLOTHO - Klotho is an anti-aging protein molecule that is mostly secrete by the kidneys, the brain, and the thyroid. It plays a major role in regulating kidney function and vascular health. The name Klotho is from the "the Spinner" (Clotho from Greek mythology), the goddess who spins the thread of life. Up-regulation of Klotho blocks the IGF/1 signal increasing CRM “like” metabolism similar to a rigorous workout. Klotho has 2 soluble forms. Klotho polymorphism called KL-VS is associated with extreme longevity. The prominent age-regulating effects of Klotho are attributed to regulation of ion homeostasis through Klotho function in the kidney. Recent findings identified brain functions and cell populations, including adult hippocampal neural progenitors, require Klotho. Both human correlational studies and mouse models of disease show that Klotho protects against multiple neurological and psychological disorders. Many current studies are focused on how the Klotho protein effects the brain, aging and cellular longevity. There is still much to learn, and the next 10 years should be very exciting.

MITOCHONDRIA - Organelles found in the cells of every complex organism that produce 90% of the chemical energy that cells need to survive. When mitochondria is not properly performing diseases are the result.

mTOR - The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORsignaling pathway integrates both intracellular and extracellular signals and serves as a central regulator of cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. Current longevity and aging studies have attracted broad scientific and clinical interest in mTOR. There is still much to be learned in this field, and the next 10 years should be very exciting.

NAD+ - Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide - A co-enzyme that plays a vital role in metabolism required for fundamental biological process. NAD+ helps turn nutrients into energy (ATP) and regulates molecular activities such as:

  • regulate oxidative stress

  • maintain circadian rhythms

  • support healthy DNA

NAD+ declines as we age resulting in negative health consequences. Oxidative stress in the brain increases with age, NAD+ depletes in direct correlation. At the cellular level NAD+ plays a pivotal role in DNA repair and human longevity. When NAD+ levels improve we see increased brain activity, improved learning ability, improved memory/recall, better focus & concentration. 5 known precursors are the raw materials that make NAD+.

  • Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)

  • Nicotinic Acid (NA)

  • Nicotinamide (Nam)

  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN)

  • Tryptophan (Trp)

There is still much to learn, and the next 10 years should be very exciting.

NICOTINAMIDE (Nam) - An important NAD+ precursor. It prevents Blacktongue and Pellagra. This must be supplemented through dietary intake. Nam acts as a chemo and radio sensitizing agent by enhancing tumor blood flow and tumor hypoxia. Nam rejoins DNA strand break induced by radiation & chemotherapy. It is found in foods such as yeast, meatfishmilk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains. Niacin is also produced in the body from tryptophan, which is found in protein-containing food. When taken as a supplement, niacin is often found in combination with other B vitamins. The highest concentrates can be found in spirulina and chlorella.

NICOTINAMIDE RIBOSIDE (NR) - Nicotinamide riboside is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B₃ that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. NR prevents the detrimental metabolic effects of high-fat feeding. NR enhances mitochondrial function and endurance performance. Nicotinamide used as a medicine may benefit the skin through anti-inflammatory properties. NR can improve cystic acne through the reduction of sebum. Once NMN enters the cell it is converted to NMN. The best dietary sources are: eggs, spinach and green vegetables with the largest known natural sources are spirulina and chlorella.

NICOTINAMIDE MONOUCLEOTIDE (NMN) - NMN is a nucleotide derived from ribose and nicotinamide and a classical coenzyme mediating many redox (reduction of oxygen to prevent oxygenation) reactions. It is used in skincare to reduce flushing/redness of the and to treat acne. Like NR, NMN is a derivative of niacin and humans have enzymes that can convert NMN to NAD+. NR is too large to enter the cell, so the body converts it into NMN and begins the NAD+ conversion process inside the cell. The best dietary sources are yeast, milk and green vegetables with the largest known natural sources are spirulina and chlorella.

SENESCENT CELLS - An un healthy gene that ceases to divide or is at the end of its lifecycle. Senescent cells are thought to be the “root cause” for many aging-associated diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes and dementia, among others.

SIRTUINS - Sirtuins are a family of proteins that play a pivotal role in aging by maintaining orderly activities within the calls. They're responsible for critical biological functions such as DNA expression and how we experience aging. However, sirtuins can only function in the presence of NAD+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme found in all living cells. NAD+ keeps Sirtuins working better and longer to keep your cells healthy. CRM is known to boost Sirtuins levels the same way CRM boost NAD+.

TELOMERES - Our genes are arranged in double-stranded molecules of DNA called chromosomes. The ends of these “ropes” are called telomeres. Much like a shoe string has a plastic protector on the end to prevent fraying, telomeres protect our genetic data making it possible for cells to divide and carry this information forward. Telomeres shorten as we age and eventually our cells can no longer hold our genetic code. This shortening process has also been compared to the fuse on a bomb. When it “goes off” aging becomes accelerated as does a higher risk for age associated illness and death.

TRYPTOPHAN (Trp) - Tryptophan is an a-amino acid that biosynthesis proteins. It is a non-polar amino acid essential in human and the body does not synthesize it. It is “essential” to our bodies natural processes. it must be obtained through diets. Found mostly in protein dense food: eggs, fish, red meat, dairy, raw seaweed and bananas. Spirulina has 5 times Trp than turkey and is considered the best dietary choice or Trp.